The four models of curriculum described are curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted, curriculum as an attempt to achieve certain ends in student-product, curriculum as process, curriculum as praxis.
In the model of curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted, the benefit of it is……, the drawback of it is that a syllabus does not indicate the relative importance of its topics or the order in which they are to be studied, it is only concerned with the order of content.
In the second model, curriculum as product, the benefit of it is that it focuses on the final product of education. The drawback of it is that it does not focus on the process of education and it does not concern about how the curriculum was thought about. If teachers use this model in the educational classroom, they cannot check if students learn something from the class, they majorly see the products from students.
In the third model, curriculum as process, the benefit of it is that, it makes teachers, students and knowledge interact together, it focuses on what actually happens in the classroom and what people do to prepare and evaluate. The drawback of it is that it does not focus on students’ final product, it does not make sure if students can put their plans into actions.
In the fourth model curriculum as praxis, the benefit of it is that it encourages both teachers and students to think critically and exchange knowledge in negotiation. I cannot find the drawback of it so far, because I see many professional teachers are using this model and I personally like this model.
In my elementary school, most of my teachers saw curriculum as product and curriculum as a syllabus to be transmitted. I think these two models are important because what I learned in elementary school were very basic (writing alphabets, counting numbers), the knowledge did not require much deep thinking and I only needed to memorize the content in textbooks. It made learning more productive but less focus on critical thinking.
After I went to higher grades (grade 4,5,6), my teachers required me to do more than just memorization, they wanted me to think critically with my point of view rather than the content in textbooks. I think the models of curriculum as process and praxis started adapting in my learning process. In my own school experience, I encountered the curriculum as praxis model the most, especially in my middle school, high school and University. These two models encouraged me to interact with teachers and exchange our thoughts. Although some knowledge that I learned are repeated, I can always gain new knowledge by communicating with other students and teachers. If I focus on the models of curriculum as process and praxis in learning, I may not learn new knowledge as fast as using the previous two models.
I think these four models of curriculum are not independent. According to the educational level of students, I do not have to only use one model because it is not an efficient way to teach. I can adapt some strategies from this model and mix it with another model, it is a more efficient way for me to teach and for students to learn.
Smith, M. K. (1996, 2000) ‘Curriculum theory and practice’ the encyclopaedia of informal education, http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-curric.htm.